There has been an increased demand for businesses to conduct their operations in a socially responsible way. This demand comes due to an increased drive towards sustainability and considering the needs of society as a whole. The idea of socially responsible operations has also translated into the investing world through socially responsible investing. What is…Read More What is Socially Responsible Investing-Its Advantages and Disadvantages
Accounting numbers are prevalent in financial reporting, business valuation, and investment management. They’re so frequently used that the practitioners rarely asked pragmatic questions such as: are they useful, do they account for some meaningful risks, can they be used to price assets. A recent article  attempts to bring some answers to these questions, This…Read More Are Accounting Numbers Useful?
Convertible bonds are complex securities that are part debt, part equity. The main feature of a convertible bond is the conversion that allows the bondholder to convert debt to equity. In addition, there can be many other “exotic” features such as callable, puttable, forced conversion, soft call, contingent conversion, etc. Given their complexities, convertible bonds’…Read More Pricing Convertible Bonds Using Monte-Carlo Simulations
Options market efficiency is a topic of interest not only to academics but also to practitioners. There is a body of research focusing on market inefficiency. For example, we recently highlighted a research paper dealing with sector ETFs’ implied volatilities and correlations. The research result implies that the options market is not efficient, as one…Read More Are Index Options Markets Efficient?
We previously demonstrated that stock indices exhibit mean-reverting property in the short term and trending property in the long term. Reference  further explored the trending/mean-reverting properties in a longer timeframe and pointed out that in the very long term, the markets mean-revert, We provide further evidence that markets trend on the medium term (months)…Read More Further on Trending/Mean-Reverting Properties of Stock Indices
We previously discussed implied dividend yield and how to extract it from traded financial instruments. Given that dividend is considered a cash payment the shareholder receives when holding a stock, naturally one would think that dividend yield can only be zero or positive. We recently, however, worked with a client whose implied dividend yield is…Read More Can Dividend Yield Be Negative?
The volatility risk premium is a common phenomenon that exists in the volatility space. It is often defined as a stock’s or index’s implied volatility (IV) minus its realized volatility (RV). For equity indices, over the long term IV is generally greater than RV, thus giving rise to the popularity of short volatility trading strategies.…Read More Predicting Volatility Risk Premium Through Sector Implied Correlation
Volatility term structure is believed to be a common phenomenon across asset classes. In equity indices, it’s well-known that implied volatility (IV) is generally greater than realized volatility (RV) (i.e. there exists a so-called volatility risk premium), and out-of-the-money (OTM) IV is greater than at-the-money (ATM) IV (i.e. there exists a so-called volatility skew). The…Read More Volatility Term Structure of the DAX Index
Most of the studies on time-series momentum have been performed in the daily, weekly, and monthly timeframes. Relatively less research has been conducted in the intraday timeframe. So naturally, we would ask the question: Does the momentum exist intraday? Reference  answers this question. It examined the time-series momentum of the SP500 index in the…Read More Does Intraday Momentum Exist in Stock Indices?
Trend following is a popular trading strategy used by Commodity Trading Advisors (CTA) and Hedge Funds around the world. The traded assets are often futures on commodities, FX, fixed-income, and equity indices. We previously demonstrated that stock indices exhibit trending property in the long term, i.e. their returns are positively autocorrelated. We subsequently developed a…Read More Does Trend Following Work on Single-Name Stocks?