ARTICLES

The trend in the increased holding of risky assets continues. Because of Covid-19, the big banks now hold more illiquid, opaque assets than before. Lenders including Barclays Plc, Citigroup Inc., BNP Paribas SA and Societe Generale SA reported a surge of more than 20% in their most opaque assets during the chaotic first half of…

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Convertible bond issuance has increased during the Covid 19 pandemic. From a funding perspective, convertible bonds have many attractive features for corporates, which have become more important during the pandemic. …In volatile markets, the value of the embedded option in a convertible bond increases. The asset class also becomes more attractive to investors owing to…

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How do you determine the volatility of an unlisted entity, and more generally, how do you forecast volatility? These are non-trivial questions. There is an interesting discussion on Stackexchange: Here is a question I had for a long time but I never asked. Let’s take an easy example, AirBnb will likely have an IPO soon,…

Read More How to Forecast Implied Volatility

A warrant is a financial derivative instrument that is similar to a regular stock option except that when it is exercised, the company will issue more stocks and sell them to the warrant holder. Warrants and options are similar in that the two contractual financial instruments allow the holder special rights to buy securities. Both…

Read More Valuation of Warrants-Derivative Pricing in Python

When constructing a portfolio, adding a low correlation, low Sharpe ratio strategy can have the same impact as adding a high Sharp ratio strategy. The low correlation strategy is a great diversifier. The core argument presented in this paper –that SR is a misleading index of whom a fund should hire or fire– seems at…

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In a previous post, we wrote about Employee Stock Options, a form of financial compensation that a company uses to reward its employees. In this post, we are going to discuss another form of compensation, Performance Share Units. Performance share units (PSUs) are hypothetical share units that are granted to you based mainly on corporate…

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Employee Stock Option (ESO) is a form of compensation that a company uses to reward, motivate, and retain its employees. An employee stock option (ESO) is a label that refers to compensation contracts between an employer and an employee that carries some characteristics of financial options. Employee stock options are commonly viewed as a complex…

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In a previous post, we presented the binomial tree method for pricing American options. Recall that an American option is an option that can be exercised any time before maturity. A drawback of the binomial tree method is that the implementation of a more complex option payoff is difficult, especially when the payoff is path-dependent.…

Read More Valuing American Options Using Monte Carlo Simulation –Derivative Pricing in Python

In the previous post, we introduced the Garman-Klass volatility estimator that takes into account the high, low, open, and closing prices of a stock. In this installment, we present an extension of the Garman-Klass volatility estimator that also takes into consideration overnight jumps. Garman-Klass-Yang-Zhang (GKYZ) volatility estimator consists of using the returns of open, high,…

Read More Garman-Klass-Yang-Zhang Historical Volatility Calculation – Volatility Analysis in Python

In the previous post, we introduced the Parkinson volatility estimator that takes into account the high and low prices of a stock. In this follow-up post, we present the Garman-Klass volatility estimator that uses not only the high and low but also the opening and closing prices. Garman-Klass (GK) volatility estimator consists of using the…

Read More Garman-Klass Volatility Calculation – Volatility Analysis in Python