What is a Swap Rate?
A swap rate is a fixed rate that comes with swaps. The rate differs based on the parties involved in the contract and the market in which they transact. There are various types of swap rates, such as the interest rate swap or currency swap. With swap rates, there are usually two parties, the payer and the receiver. The receiver is the party that receives or demands the fixed rate. The payer, on the other hand, is the party that pays or offers the fixed rate.
With swap rates, receivers get compensated for any uncertainty revolving around floating interest rates. This way, they can mitigate the risks that come with fluctuations in floating-rate instruments. For interest-rate swaps, the payer exchanges a fixed interest rate for a benchmark rate. There are various types of currency swaps. These may include exchanging the fixed rate of one currency for the floating rate of another.
How does a Swap Rate work?
Swap rates may come with different instruments or swaps. As mentioned, there are two types of swap rates. With interest swap rates, two parties exchange floating and fixed interest rates. Usually, they do so to avoid the uncertainty associated with floating interest rates that come with instruments. After a period, one party compensates the other for the differences in the interest payments.
On the other hand, a currency swap may come in different forms. It may include the exchange of a fixed rate in one currency for the fixed rate in another. It may also consist of exchanging a fixed rate to floating rate and floating rate to floating rate between two currencies. The purpose of currency swaps is to avoid the risk associated with forex exchange rates.
What is an Interest Rate Swap?
An interest rate swap involves a contract between two parties to exchange their future interest payments on a loan or bond. It may exist between individuals, companies, or financial institutions. Swaps are derivative contracts. Therefore, interest rate swaps get their value from the underlying value of the interest payment streams.
With interest rate swaps, both parties can exchange their interest payments from their respective loan or bond. However, the underlying debt instruments remain with the original borrower. Since interest rate swaps involve the exchange of floating and fixed interest rates, the interest payment on them may differ. At the end of each period, one of the involved parties pays or receives the excess interest payments.
What is a Currency Swap?
While interest rate swaps focus on mitigating the uncertainty that comes with interest rates, currency swaps involve currency exchange rates. The parties involved in currency swaps don’t net off the difference in interest payments. Instead, they calculate and pay the difference in the currencies involved.
Both parties will also fix the date or time for payments throughout the contract’s lifecycle. Most investors use it to hedge long-term investments. Some parties may also use it to change the interest rate exposure of the parties involved. Some parties may also use it to get more favourable loan rates at a foreign location than they can get in their country of origin.
Swap rates involved the exchange of interest payments at a fixed rate. There are two types of interest rate swaps prevalent in the market, including interest rate swaps and currency swaps. The focus of interest rate swaps is to mitigate the risks involved in interest payments. For currency swaps, the focus may be currency exchange rate variations.